Quantum Information Technologies
Research and Legislative Reference Bureau of the National Diet Library (ed.), "Quantum Information Technologies," Research Materials, 2021-6, March 2022.
This report presents a variety of perspectives on the past, present, and future of quantum information technology, also known as Quantum 2.0. The impact of quantum information technology is endless and has the potential to bring innovation to all kinds of information technology. The driving force of this innovation springs from the nature of superposition and entanglement. Chapter 1 summarizes the history of quantum information science. Chapter 2 takes a look at trends in the R&D of quantum computers, quantum simulators, quantum sensing, and quantum communications and networks. Quantum computers have demonstrated a computational power transcending that of current supercomputers, albeit regarding specific problems, and we have entered an era of small- and medium-sized quantum computers called NISQ devices. The hardware for these devices was pioneered by superconductivity, followed by ions and light, then by atoms and semiconductors. At present, however, no one knows what kind of hardware will lead to a fault-tolerant quantum computer that can handle any problem. The development of middleware and software to control this hardware is also booming. A wide range of quantum algorithms have been developed, and their applications include quantum machine learning, database search, quantum chemistry calculation to molecular simulation, chemical reaction search, catalyst development, and drug discovery. It is also expected to contribute to solving energy issues and achieving carbon neutrality. Quantum simulations are also expected to use analog features in the same applications as quantum computers. Quantum measurement and sensing are thought to be most practical. Field tests of optical lattice clocks have been conducted and practical applications are near. Following this, inertial sensors, NV solid-state quantum sensors, and room temperature hyperpolarization technologies are steadily approaching practical use and expanding application. In quantum communication and networks, the commercialization of quantum cryptography has advanced to the point that several companies are now manufacturing quantum cryptographic devices. Although security is less than perfect, quantum cryptographic communication across thousands of kilometers using satellites has been achieved by using trusted nodes to compensate for the longs distances that would otherwise create bottlenecks. Research and development of a quantum internet connecting a variety of quantum devices is also progressing as a means for creating a perfectly secure infrastructure for large-scale quantum computers. Chapter 3 address the subject of social implementation. Since 2010, a number of organizations have actively worked to develop quantum information technology. Although the leading organizations are overseas, Japanese researchers are gradually catching up. Quantum computing has been particularly useful in providing cloud services to corporate customers. One factor for this is that the demand for computing power has expanded significantly as the wide-spread use of AI and other technologies means a companyʼs ability to compete is linked directly to its computing power. It is now essential that companies enhance the development of human resources and create an R&D environment that encompasses their market while promoting advances in technology. Graduate programs specializing in quantum information technology have been established in major developed countries, and systems for qualification are also in place. Additionally, although the number of patent applications is on the decline in Japan, they have doubled in the United States and China. Chapter 4 summarizes policy trends in countries around the world. The significant investment that started in the UK in 2012 has spread to the EU and the US. The budget in the US is approaching 1 billion dollars a year. This is due to the presence of China, which is rapidly advancing R&D. Along this line, EU countries have increased their investments, and Japan has followed suit. Neither can Canada, Australia, and India be overlooked. In terms of national and economic security, quantum information technology is now as important as AI. 〔The table of contents and the summary in English are contained in the following document. https://doi.org/10.11501/12213085〕
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Research and Legislative Reference Bureau (RLRB), National Diet Library (NDL) (RLRB)