|Neurotechnologies: Connecting Human Brains to Computers and Related Ethical Challenges|
Since 2013, billions of dollars in public funding have been allocated to the study of the human brain in the United States of America (USA), the European Union, and China. The international competition for scientific advancement within this field is analogous to the "Space Race", which took place between the USA and the former USSR in the 20th century. These developments have posed ethical and regulatory challenges that urgently require a response. Is the brain the ultimate safeguard of human intimacy and integrity? Should it be? What limits should there be to protect personal privacy? Would a patient be responsible for assaulting someone with a prosthetic device (a prosthesis), if he or she does not have full control over it? How should brain information for commercial purposes be regulated? How should access to technologies that enable the intellectual enhancement of people be regulated? Ethical and policy discussion around these issues are occurring in many different countries, as they seek to build an urgently needed framework through which to address these questions. At stake is the possibility that these new technologies, particularly when used in conjunction with Artificial Intelligence (AI), could redefine what it means to be human.